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Electron beam welding

Benefits Application & materials Process details

Electron beam welding (EBW) is a specialist metal joining technique used to create high integrity joints with minimal distortion.


  • Low heat input for the welded parts;
  • Minimal distortion;
  • Narrow melt zone (MZ) and narrow heat affected zone (HAZ);
  • Deep weld penetration from 0.05 mm to 200 mm (0.002” to 8”) in single pass;
  • High welding speed;
  • Welding of all metals even with high thermal conductivity;
  • Welding of metals with dissimilar melting points;
  • Vacuum process yields in clean and reproducible environment;
  • Natural welding process for oxygen greedy materials such as titanium, zirconium and niobium;
  • Machine process guaranteed for reliability and reproducibility of the operating conditions;
  • Cost-effective welding process for large production in automatic mode; and
  • Parts can mostly be used in the as welded condition - no sub-machining required.

Application & materials

  • Aerospace
    • Jet engine components
    • Parts of structures
    • Transmission parts
    • Sensors
  • Power generation
  • Space
    • Titanium tanks
    • Sensors
  • Vacuum systems
  • Medical
  • Automotive
    • Transmission parts
    • Gears
    • Parts of turbocharger
  • Electrical/electronic industries
    • Parts in copper material
  • Nuclear
    • Fuel housing
    • Parts of structure
    • Valves
    • Instrumentations
  • Research centres
    • Copper parts
    • Superconductivity material components
  • Miscellaneous
  • All metals even with high thermal conductivity
    • Steel and stainless steel
    • Aluminium and alloys
    • Copper and alloys
    • Nickel alloys and refractory metals
    • Titanium and alloys
    • Zr, Mo, Ta, Hf, W, Nb, etc
  • Welding of metals with dissimilar melting points
    • Copper to steel
    • Copper to nickel alloys
    • Steel to nickel alloys
    • Tantalum to tungsten

Process details

Electron Beam Welding is a method which uses a focussed stream of high energy electrons generated by a filament and directed to the joint requiring to be welded. The heating is very localised and the bulk of the assembly therefore remains cold and stable. This results in a very narrow weld with a minimal heat affected zone. There is no need to use filler metal as the parent metal of the assembly is melted. As this is a line of sight method it is not possible to weld around corners or re-entrant angles. Weld depths of up to 30mm can be produced and computer controls ensure minimal operator dependence, thus providing good reproducibility throughout a batch of components, even though this is a piece part process. Since the heat input is very localised it is possible to weld together previously heat treated components, which is a very economical method for producing composite gear shafts, with for example a case hardened gear on a hardened and tempered shaft.